The effects of global warming in the Arctic, or climate change in the Arctic include rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, and melting of the Greenland ice sheet with a related cold temperature anomaly, observed in recent years. Potential methane release from the region, especially through the thawing of permafrost and methane clathrates, is also a concern. The Arctic warms twice as fast compared to the rest of the world. The pronounced warming signal, the amplified response of the Arctic to global warming, it is often seen as a leading indicator of global warming. The melting of Greenland’s ice sheet is linked to polar amplification. According to a study published in 2016, about 0.5◦C of the warming in the Arctic has been attributed to reductions in sulfate aerosols in Europe since 1980.